> Burners and Stingers
Burners and Stingers are terms used to describe neural injury to the upper limb. They describe the type of pain that at the time of injury may spread from the shoulder to the hand. Burners and stingers often happen in contact sports where they may also be called a dead arm.
> Dislocated Shoulder
The shoulder is a ball and socket joint and is the most mobile joint in the body. For every advantage the shoulder gains in mobility it loses in stability. It is highly vulnerable to dislocation and this may be described as a partial (subluxed) or complete dislocation and anterior, posterior or multidirectional.
> Shoulder Joint Tear
A shoulder joint labral tear is an injury to the labrum of the shoulder, or to the fibrous ring surrounding the glenoid or socket of the shoulder. A tear above the middle of the socket is called a SLAP tear, while below the middle is called a Bankart tear. These tears are often associated with complete or partial dislocation.
> SLAP tears
SLAP tears are injuries to the upper part of the shoulder joint. SLAP stands for Superior Labrum Anterior and Posterior which describes the location of the tear in the shoulder. The SLAP area of the labrum has the biceps tendon anchored to it which may be a cause of injury. A SLAP tear injury is often caused by repetitive movements above the level of the shoulder.
> Chronic Shoulder Instability
Once a shoulder has been injured by dislocation, it is highly vulnerable to repeat episodes. When a shoulder has dislocated multiple times it becomes loose and may dislocate spontaneously. This is chronic shoulder instability. Chronic instability is often associated with bone loss that may make arthroscopic repair less successful and require an open Latarjet procedure.
> Frozen Shoulder
A frozen shoulder starts with pain limiting movement. Limited movement leads to stiffness. Stiffness is caused by connective tissue adhesions and diminishing volumes of synovial fluid, the lubricant of all joints.
> Hills Sachs Lesion
When a shoulder dislocates, the ball of the joint (the humerus), falls out of the socket of the joint (the glenoid). In some instances of dislocation, the head of the humerus may be fractured by the glenoid as it dislocates. A Hill-Sachs lesion is when the humerus developed this impaction fracture during an episode of dislocation.
> Rotator Cuff Tears
There are 4 muscles which comprise the rotator cuff of the shoulder. These muscles help position the ball and socket of the shoulder during shoulder movement. Rotator cuff tears are very painful and debilitating and can be described as partial, full thickness and massive tears caused by trauma or degeneration. Early conservative management is effective, but often surgical repair is indicated.
> Biceps Tendon Tear at the Shoulder
The biceps muscle has two tendons which insert into the shoulder. The long head biceps tendon attaches to the top of the shoulder socket or glenoid, and the short head biceps tendon attaches to the coracoid process. Biceps tendon tears can be partial or complete and are most often associated with the long head of biceps tendon. Trauma or overuse are the usual mechanisms of injury and degree and duration of pain are indicators for surgery.
> Tendonitis of the Long Head of Biceps
Tendonitis of the long head of the biceps tendon is an inflammation or irritation condition resulting in weakness and pain. Symptoms can often be relieved by rest and medication.