> Elbow Dislocation
The humerus, radius and ulnar are the bones of the elbow joint. The elbow joint is both a hinge joint and a ball and socket joint. Dislocations are categorised as partial, also known as subluxed elbow joints, or complete dislocations. Complete dislocation of the elbow is rare. Emergency procedures should be followed immediately to avoid any additional nerve or blood vessel complications which may arise.
> Elbow Injuries in the Throwing Athelete
Over arm throwing activities place high stress on the shoulder and elbow joint. Often these same activities involve repetitive high stress movements. Repetitive stresses often cause injury gradually over time. Common throwing injuries of the elbow include flexor tendinitis, Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) Injury, Valgus Extension Overload (VEO), Olecranon Stress Fracture, and Ulnar Neuritis. Common surgical treatments include arthroscopy, UCL reconstruction and ulnar nerve anterior transposition.
> Ulnar Nerve Entrapment
The ulnar nerve runs from the neck, down the upper arm, through the medial aspect of the elbow, to the medial forearm, wrist and little and ring fingers of the hand. The ulnar nerve passes through a tunnel of tissue at the elbow called the Cubital Tunnel. Ulnar nerve entrapment may occur anywhere along the nerve, however, it is most common at the cubital tunnel, where it is commonly called cubital tunnel syndrome. If non-surgical treatments fail an ulnar nerve anterior transposition may help relieve symptoms.
> Nurse Maid's Elbow
Nurse maid's elbow is a common injury of early childhood. Nurse maid's elbow typically results from the arm being pulled too hard and the radial head partially dislocating, also known as radial head subluxation. The injury often occurs in children from 1-4yrs old, but may occur up to the age of 7. Reduction of the subluxation often results in relief pain and return to normal function.
> Tennis Elbow
Tennis Elbow is an overuse injury of the forearm extensors. Tennis elbow occurs at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, which is felt as a boney bump on the outside of the elbow. Tennis elbow is a gradual onset condition involving pain. Treatment is typically conservative, but if stretching and anti-inflammation treatment is unsuccessful, surgical treatment involving debridement of unhealthy tissue and reattachment of healthy tissue is advised.
> Biceps Tendon Repair
Distal biceps tendon rupture or rupture of the biceps tendon at the elbow, are typically complete tears occurring spontaneously during an eccentric contraction of the biceps. Rupture of the tendon results in a 30%-40% loss in muscle strength with associated muscle shortening with the common term "popeye deformity".
> Recurrent and Chronic Elbow Instability
Repeated elbow dislocation results in looseness of the elbow such that it causes the joint to pop, catch, or slide out of place on an increasingly frequent basis. Elbow instability presents as posterolateral rotatory instability, valgus instability and or varus posteromedial rotatory instability. Surgery may be a solution if conservative treatments fail.